# Python Numbers, Type Conversion, and Mathematics

Introduction: Python Mathematics

In Python, numbers are a fundamental data type used for mathematical calculations and operations. Understanding how to work with numbers, perform type conversions, and utilize mathematical functions is crucial for various programming tasks. In this tutorial, we will explore Python numbers, learn about different numeric types, discover type conversions, and delve into mathematical operations.

### Python Numeric Types:

Python provides several numeric types to handle different kinds of numbers. The commonly used numeric types include:

1. Integer (int): Integers are whole numbers without a fractional part. They can be positive, negative, or zero.
2. Float: Floats represent numbers with a fractional part. They are used to store decimal numbers and can also represent very large or small values using scientific notation.
3. Complex: Complex numbers consist of a real part and an imaginary part. They are written in the form `a + bj`, where `a` is the real part and `b` is the imaginary part.

### Type Conversion:

Type conversion, also known as typecasting, allows you to convert one data type to another. Python provides built-in functions to perform type conversions:

1. `int()`: Converts a value to an integer.
2. `float()`: Converts a value to a float.
3. `complex()`: Converts a value to a complex number.
4. `str()`: Converts a value to a string.

Here are a few examples of type conversions:

``````num = 10
float_num = float(num)
print(float_num)  # Output: 10.0

str_num = str(num)
print(str_num)  # Output: '10'
``````

In this example, we convert the integer value `num` to a float using the `float()` function, and then to a string using the `str()` function.

### Python Mathematics Operations:

Python provides a rich set of mathematical operations and functions to perform calculations on numbers. Some common mathematical operators include:

1. Addition (`+`): Adds two numbers together.
2. Subtraction (`-`): Subtracts one number from another.
3. Multiplication (`*`): Multiplies two numbers.
4. Division (`/`): Divides one number by another.
5. Modulo (`%`): Returns the remainder of division.
6. Exponentiation (`**`): Raises a number to a power.

Here’s an example demonstrating these mathematical operations:

``````x = 10
y = 3

subtraction = x - y
multiplication = x * y
division = x / y
modulo = x % y
exponentiation = x ** y

print(subtraction)  # Output: 7
print(multiplication)  # Output: 30
print(division)  # Output: 3.3333333333333335
print(modulo)  # Output: 1
print(exponentiation)  # Output: 1000
``````

In this code snippet, we perform various mathematical operations using the variables `x` and `y`.

### Mathematical Functions:

Python also provides a range of built-in mathematical functions that can be applied to numbers. These functions reside in the `math` module and need to be imported before use. Here’s an example:

``````import math

sqrt_result = math.sqrt(25)
cos_result = math.cos(math.pi)

print(sqrt_result)  # Output: 5.0
print(cos_result)  # Output: -1.0
``````

In this example, we import the `math` module and use the `sqrt()` and `cos()` functions to calculate the square root of 25 and the cosine of pi, respectively.

Python offers a robust set of features for working with numbers, performing type conversions, and conducting mathematical operations. By understanding the various numeric types, leveraging type conversion functions, and utilizing mathematical operations and functions, you can effectively handle numerical computations in your Python programs.

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