Python Object-Oriented Programming

Introduction: Python Object-Oriented Programming

Python is a versatile and powerful programming language that supports various programming paradigms. One of the most prominent paradigms in Python is Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). OOP allows developers to structure their code using objects, classes, and the principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. This article will provide an in-depth explanation of Python Object-Oriented Programming and demonstrate its implementation through a detailed example.

Understanding Python Object-Oriented Programming

Object-Oriented Programming is a programming paradigm that revolves around the concept of objects. Objects are instances of classes, which act as blueprints or templates defining the attributes and behaviors of objects. In Python, almost everything is an object, including built-in types like integers, strings, and lists.

Classes and Objects A class is a user-defined blueprint or prototype that defines the attributes and methods of an object. It encapsulates related data and functions into a single unit. To create an object from a class, you instantiate it, which means you create an instance of the class. Each object created from a class is independent and has its own set of attributes and methods.


Encapsulation is a fundamental principle of OOP that allows data hiding and protects the internal state of an object. It involves bundling the attributes and methods of a class together and controlling access to them. By defining access modifiers like public, private, and protected, we can determine which attributes and methods can be accessed from outside the class.

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Inheritance is a mechanism in which a class inherits the properties (attributes and methods) of another class. The class that is inherited from is called the superclass or base class, while the class that inherits is called the subclass or derived class. Inheritance promotes code reuse and allows for the creation of specialized classes that inherit and extend the functionality of the base class.


Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on many forms. It allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. Polymorphism enables flexibility and code extensibility by providing the ability to use objects interchangeably, as long as they adhere to the common interface or superclass.

Example: Building a Bank System

To illustrate Python Object-Oriented Programming, let’s create a simple bank system with classes for customers and accounts.

class Customer:
    def __init__(self, name, address): = name
        self.address = address

    def display_info(self):
        print(f"Customer: {}\nAddress: {self.address}")

class Account:
    def __init__(self, account_number, balance, customer):
        self.account_number = account_number
        self.balance = balance
        self.customer = customer

    def deposit(self, amount):
        self.balance += amount

    def withdraw(self, amount):
        if amount <= self.balance:
            self.balance -= amount
            print("Insufficient balance.")

    def display_info(self):
        print(f"Account Number: {self.account_number}\nBalance: {self.balance}")

In this example, we have two classes: Customer and Account. The Customer class represents bank customers and stores their name and address. The Account class represents bank accounts and includes attributes for the account number, balance, and the associated customer.

The Customer class has an __init__ method to initialize the name and address, as well as a display_info method to print the customer’s information.

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The Account class has an __init__ method to initialize the account details, a deposit method to add funds to the account, a withdraw method to deduct funds (if the balance allows), and a display_info method to print the account information along with the associated customer’s details.

Let’s create instances of these classes and interact with them:

customer = Customer("John Doe", "123 Main Street")
account = Account("123456789", 1000, customer)



In this code, we create a Customer instance called customer and an Account instance called account. We pass the customer object as an argument when creating the account object.

We then perform a deposit of 500 and a withdrawal of 200 on the account object. Finally, we call the display_info method on the account object to print its information, including the associated customer’s details.

Python’s support for Object-Oriented Programming allows developers to create modular, reusable, and organized code by utilizing classes, objects, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. By adopting OOP principles, you can enhance code maintainability, promote code reusability, and improve overall software design. Understanding and leveraging Python Object-Oriented Programming is an essential skill for building complex and scalable applications.

Remember, this article only scratches the surface of Python OOP. Further exploration can include advanced topics such as class inheritance hierarchies, abstract classes, interfaces, and design patterns.

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